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Qatar Geography


Comprising an area of 11,437 km² (4,416 mi²), the State of Qatar consists of a peninsula projecting northward into the Persian Gulf, extending about 160 km (100 mi) north to south, and 90 km (55 mi) east to west. Comparatively, the area occupied by Qatar is twice the size of Brunei, or slightly smaller than the state of Connecticut. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia and has a total boundary length of 623 km (387 mi), of which 563 km (350 mi) is coastline. Qatar also includes a number of islands, of which the most important is Halul.

The Hawar Islands, which were part of a border dispute between Qatar and Bahrain for many years, were awarded to Bahrain by the International Court of Justice in 2001. Qatar's capital city, Doha, is located on the Persian Gulf coast.

The terrain is generally flat and sandy, rising gradually from the east to a central limestone plateau. About 56 km (35 mi) long, the Dukhan anticline rises from the west coast as a chain of hills of up to 100 m (325 ft) in height. Some low cliffs mark the northern end of the east coast. The presence of extensive salt flats at the base of the peninsula supports the theory that Qatar was once an island.

Qatar's summer, from May to October, is extremely hot. Mean temperatures in June are 42°C (108°F), dropping to 15°C (59°F) in winter. Humidity is high along the coast. Rainfall is minimal.


Location : Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates : 25 30 N, 51 15 E
Map references : Middle East
Area : total: 11,586 sq km

land: 11,586 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative : twice the size of Brunei, or slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries : total: 60 km

border countries: Saudi Arabia 60 km
Coastline : 563 km
Maritime claims : territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median line
Climate : arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain : mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel
Elevation extremes : lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Tuwayyir al Hamir 103 m
Natural resources : petroleum, natural gas, fish
Land use : arable land: 1.64%

permanent crops: 0.27%

other: 98.09% (2005)
Irrigated land : 130 sq km (2002)
Total renewable water resources : 0.1 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) : total: 0.29 cu km/yr (24%/3%/72%)

per capita: 358 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards : haze, dust storms, sandstorms common
Environment - current issues : limited natural freshwater resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities
Environment - international agreements : party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note : strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits




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